What was the decisive role of China at the time of Tashkent Summit and in what extent China was responsible for the assassination of Lal Bahadur Shastri means poisoning incident which resulted in the mysterious death of Shastri Jee due to heart attack by poison. This is fully explained in Part I Chapter 5 Page 114 to 117 of my book: Silent Assassins, Jan 11, 1966.The book is available at www.amazon.com/
There was consolidation of friendship in diverse ways— establishment of air links between the two countries, construction of the Sinkiang-Gilgit road, opening of a Chinese consulate at Dacca, etc. Pakistan maintained that China did not constitute any danger to Pakistan.
It was during President Ayub Khan’s visit that Pakistan for the first time rejected the Two-China ll scheme of the United States. It was stated in the joint communiqué that President Ayub Khan reiterated Pakistan’s opposition for creating two Chinas. With the improvement of its relations with Pakistan, China also showed greater understanding in respect of Pakistan’s membership in Western military alliances.
China appeared to have accepted Pakistan’s explanation that its membership in the military pacts was not directed against China. On being pointed out the contradiction between Pakistan’s membership of the SEATO and Pakistan’s friendship with China, Chou En-lai said: “We do not deny that there is a certain contradiction. It is precisely for this reason that development of friendly relations between China and Pakistan has been a process of gradual accumulation.
Interestingly, the United States was not expected to take exception to Sino-Pakistan friendship because the United States, at that time, was exploring the possibility of using Pakistan as a mediator in an effort for bringing about a rapprochement with China. Pakistan was found to be of use in the role of a mediator. In July 1964, Ayub Khan said that half of his talks during Chou En-lai’s visit to Pakistan was devoted to Sino-American relations. The Soviet Union tried to get a foothold in Pakistan in the context of its differences and difficulties with China. For nearly a decade after the Chinese Revolution in 1949, Sino-Soviet relations were very warm and very close. Their friendship was further cemented through the Sino-Soviet Treaty of friendship for twenty years signed.
Calculating that the strategic environment was in Pakistan’s favor, Ayub Khan made up his mind to find a military solution to the Kashmir issue. Pakistani strategists told him that India would not be in a position to face two fronts simultaneously. Pakistan used the Rann of Kutch War to asses the international support it could muster. It noted to its satisfaction that the Soviet Union was strictly neutral and there was no reason to think that the Soviet attitude would change in the near future. Extending full-throated support to Pakistan, China for the first time intervened in a conflict between the two partners of the sub-continent. The Chinese Press reports were totally partisan. On 4 May 1965, China issued a statement on the India-Pakistan border conflict. This statement was a scathing attack on India, charging India with following “big nation chauvinist and expansionist policy. It completely endorsed the Pakistani stand. The Chinese support emboldened Pakistan. Its strategists calculated that China would open a second front and India would find herself in the unenviable position of fighting in two fronts. And they hoped that the advantage would be Pakistan’s. The British-sponsored Rann of Kutch agreement also gave Pakistan the hope that international pressure would prevail upon India to grant concessions to Pakistan in Kashmir. Pakistan started “Operation Gibralter” to capture the Kashmir valley. Pakistan hoped that the intervention of its army would lead to insurgency in Kashmir, cause discomfiture to India and the Kashmir issue would again be in international limelight.
China wanted war between India and Pakistan should be continued. So by her hostile acts China evoked Pakistan. Chinese behavior amounted to adding fuel to the fire and fishing in troubled waters………………………………..
In order to exert pressure on India, China sent a protest note to India on 8 September. The Chinese Government charged India with serious border violations on the Sino-Indian border. China demanded that India must dismantle all the “aggressive military structure^’^ it had “illegally” built beyond or on the China-Sikkim boundary, withdraw its aggressive armed forces “and stop all its acts of aggression and provocations” against China in the Western, Middle, and Eastern sectors of the Sino-Indian border. It was a veiled threat by China to open a second front. India lodged a strong protest against this note and condemned China’s support to Pakistan “to fan flames of war” and for threatening to open a second front against ~ I n d i a. Chinese answer was another ultimatum on 19 September which a1: Lowed three days for India to comply with Chinese demands. However, the Chinese ultimatum was not backed by military action. In fact, China never contemplated military action because it knew that it could not get away with it as the Soviet Union and the United States would not be silent spectators to the disturbance of peace and balance of power in South Asia. According to an analyst, Mao Tse-tung was reported to have told Ayub Khan that “if there; nuclear war, it is Peking and not Rawalpindi that will be the target”. Soviet Union watched the Chinese moves……………………………………………………………………..
If India and Pakistan were not quarrelling, and if their relations remained good with the Great Powers, China knew that it would be kept out of South Asia and the Great Powers could divert their attention and forces to containing Chinese influence in South Asia. What was at stake wasChina’s deliberate and conscious effort to open a South Asian front in its quest for influence and power. China could not allow the slipping away of Pakistan from its orbit.
So China had. unleashed a vigorous propaganda campaign to dissuade Pakistan from going to Tashkent, which in Chinese view, would result in Pakistan being compelled to accept a dictated peace and the closing of Pakistan’s options in Kashmir.
No one could be fooled by the Chinese charges against India. Really there was something silly and funny about it. China threatened to strike at India on the flimsy grounds of stealing some Chinese yaks and srabbins some Chinese territory.
Ayub Khan took a lesson that Pakistan should not commit the mistake of relying on China and that Pakistan should balance its relations with all the three Great Powers. It was this realization which brought the Pakistan President to Tashkent.
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